As many firms have demonstrated over time, product design and development contributes more to the enhancement of competitiveness, because it allows reduction of costs, increase in quality, and often, minimizing time. The product design and development, in turn, generally satisfies customers’ needs and demands. Few years ago, the process of product design and development was essentially concentrated on describing the characteristics that a product should possess. However the product design and development process is now considered from a broader perspective: instead of simply discussing to the products characteristics, it now takes external factors into account such as: Customers’ requirements, Reduction of manufacturing costs, Quality, assembly and distribution process, Product disassembly reuse and recycling, Safety, Environmental impact before and after manufacture, hygiene, ergonomic factors, etc. These factors must be taken into concern from the foundation of the product design and development, in order to fulfil the dynamics competitive markets. The altering demands of customers must also be fulfilled, a factor involving new social insights, like concern for the environment. All this has an impact on product design and development in which products must be designed, manufactured and reused, and introduces new ways of looking at the product design and development process, of course as well as the techniques involved. The allegations of this new perspective on product design and development are important:
- The new product design and development must satisfy various criteria instantaneously.
- These measures must be taken into account during the idea of the product. Subsequently, each of them must be identified, made clear and related to the others. The synergies and limitations that may exist between them during the product life cycle must be examined.
- As an outcome, the designer can no longer act in an out-of-the-way fashion; instead he/ she must mingle with many other experts both inside and outside the company in order to describe the diverse standards that illustrate a product.
- The information that must be accomplished therefore rises almost exponentially. Design and manufacture features are considered basic information to be controlled jointly and concurrently during design and development.
Product design and development is similar to Industrial Design but varies in some important ways. ID as communicated in the United States is concerned with a comprehensive scale of design activity, across everything from graphics and package design to display and environmental design. Product design and development focuses on 3-dimensional design. Distinctive Industrial Design training involves a broad art education that does not investigate into any one subject in excessive depth. It is naturally interested in the skin of products but not the actual mechanisms of the inside. As a result this education tends to emphasis on the communication skills, which are anticipated by potential employers. The distinctive ID graduate expects many years "on the board" and is anticipated to be beautifully accomplished to the minimum detail. The key variance of product design and development from Mechanical Engineering is that the latter is mainly involved with the use of analysis and scientific theories to the design of engineering systems. Principal concerns include understanding the behaviour of materials, fluid flow and thermodynamic disputes of a given problem. Naturally pure engineering difficulties do not have product's appearance, product design and development is involved in products where these disputes and their communication with the internal technology are grave to the success of the product.
Objectives of product design and development Techniques are a set of tools that enable product innovation, enlightening their quality, image functionality, and differentiation, and thereby allowing SME’s to improve their competitiveness. Main goals of Product design and development include
- Support new products meet the conditions related to customer’s needs, quality, price, manufacturing, recycling, etc
- Decrease development costs and time essential for commercialization.
- Organize and schedule the activities involved in the product design and development within the whole set of activities, considering time, tasks, resources, manufacturing, etc.
- Incorporate the above objectives into a development strategy in line with the firm’s capabilities.
Techniques that can be used in product design and development many techniques and tools are presently in use. The full and coinciding beginning of the product design and development process needs particular design and development techniques that permit handling the related information. These techniques can be categorized into two wide groups. 1. Techniques and Tools for Design Improvement These offer the firm with analytical techniques and tools planned to analyse the product concept in the perspective of its limitations. In general, three activities allied with the execution of product design and development techniques can be defined.
Presentation of the Methodologies In this first phase, the necessary concepts of the methodology and its solicitation, the goals to be accomplished and the how to reach them, are presented to the firm’s management. The knowledge is for the firm to change the way it thinks about technology. Moreover, it is essential to include management in the receipt of a process of continuing improvement, in order to familiarize to a constantly changing environment.
Development of practical aspects an initial investigative methodology is usually used. This focuses on describing the weakness that the firm may have in competitive strategy for Product Design and Development, since this is the space that will be converted into the axis around which the whole process turns. The acceptance of a strategy for Product Design and Development is replicated in the degree of integration of the diverse activities involved.
Creation of Work Teams One of the important traits of design management is the development of work teams. They need to have the support of management, and need a reorganization of functions, and the assigning of responsibilities on the measure of the whole company. The members of the work teams are allocated responsibilities implementation times and resources. Above all, effective leadership is vital in order to organize activities. This leadership must possess concentration on the objectives and provide the essential support to raise enthusiasm and commitment.